Should I Take an Omega-3 Supplement?

by | Jun 3, 2024

Omega-3 fatty acids have become a popular supplement, touted for various health benefits. But what does the research say? Are omega-3 supplements truly effective? Who can benefit from them, and how should they be incorporated into a daily regimen? This post will dive into the scientific evidence to answer these questions.

What Are Omega-3 Fatty Acids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats, meaning the body cannot produce them and must obtain them from the diet. There are three main types of omega-3s:

  1. ALA (alpha-linolenic acid): Found in plant oils like flaxseed, soybean, and canola oils.
  2. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid): Found in fish and other seafood.
  3. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid): Also found in fish and other seafood.

Are Omega-3 Supplements Effective?

Cardiovascular Health


Numerous studies have highlighted the cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Research shows that omega-3 supplements can lower triglyceride levels, reduce the risk of heart disease, and decrease blood pressure. A large meta-analysis published in the Journal of the American Heart Association found that omega-3 supplementation significantly reduces the risk of cardiac death, coronary events, and coronary heart disease.

Mental Health


Omega-3s, particularly EPA and DHA, play a crucial role in brain function and development. Studies suggest that they may help alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. For example, a review in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry indicated that omega-3 supplements, especially those with a higher EPA to DHA ratio, can be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder.

Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases


Omega-3s have anti-inflammatory properties, making them beneficial for conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown that omega-3 supplements can reduce symptoms and may decrease the need for anti-inflammatory drugs in some patients.

Eye Health


DHA is a major structural component of the retina. Adequate intake of omega-3s is associated with a reduced risk of macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision loss as we age. Studies published in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science suggest that omega-3 supplementation can support eye health and slow the progression of macular degeneration.

Who Can Benefit from Omega-3 Supplements?


While omega-3s are beneficial for everyone, certain groups may particularly benefit from supplementation:

  • Individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: Including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or a family history of heart disease.
  • People with mental health conditions: Such as depression, anxiety, or ADHD.
  • Patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases: Like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
  • Older adults: At risk of macular degeneration or cognitive decline.

How Much and How Often Should Omega-3 Supplements Be Taken?


The optimal dosage of omega-3s can vary based on individual health needs and goals. However, general guidelines include:

  • For general health: 250-500 mg of combined EPA and DHA per day.
  • For heart health: Up to 1,000 mg of combined EPA and DHA per day.
  • For reducing triglycerides: 2,000-4,000 mg of combined EPA and DHA per day, often under medical supervision.

It’s essential to choose high-quality supplements. Look for those that provide at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA per serving and are free from contaminants like mercury.



The research supports the effectiveness of omega-3 supplements in promoting cardiovascular health, and mental well-being, reducing inflammation, and protecting eye health. While most people can benefit from including omega-3s in their diet, supplementation may be particularly advantageous for individuals with specific health concerns. For more information on supplementation and nutritional coaching, contact AZ Dietitians.


  1. Abdelhamid AS, Brown TJ, Brainard JS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;7(7). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub3.
  2. Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, et al. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014;9(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096905.
  3. Calder PC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man. Biochem Soc Trans. 2017;45(5):1105-1115. doi:10.1042/BST20160474.
  4. Wong WL, Su X, Li X, et al. Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(2). doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70145-1.

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